The 6th Imam
His Holiness Jafar ibn Muhammad al Sadiq (AS)
The Wavy Sea and the Lighted Lamp the Renewer of Islam and the Publisher of the Religion of the Best People, the Preacher of Quran: Jafar bin Mohammad al Sadiq. His blessed name Jafar, his honorable patronym is said to be Abu Abdullah and also Abu Ismail. His auspicious titles Sadiq and Saber and Fazel, but his most famous title is Sadiq. His honorable father is His Holiness Imam Mohammad Baqir and his paragon mother Omme Farwah is the daughter of Qasim bin Mohammad Abi Bakr. The same Mohammad bin Abi Bakr whom His Holiness Amir said: call him Mohammad bin Ali; and his mother Omme Farwah is also the daughter of Abdul Rahman bin Abi Bakr. From this visage, His Holiness has said: I was born from Abu Bakr two times.
His felicitous birth was on the 17th Rabi ul Awwal in the year 83 Hijri (702 AD) according to most narrations and he witnessed eleven years and some months out of the lifetime of his great grandfather His Holiness Sayed Sajad (AS), then nineteen years and some months he spent during the lifetime of his noble sublime father, and His Holiness Baqir passed away in the year 114 Hijri (733 AD) and was appointed as successor of that chivalrous Imam and Imamate of the people according to the decree of his father. This was at the time his blessed age was thirty one years.
The era of His Holiness was different from some visages in comparison to the era of his noble sublime grandfather and his honorable father; because during his era the general circumstances had found its course in new directions. Firstly, the intermingling of people of various nations and society and relations of different races had been increased under the auspices of Islamic religion and each group of them had knowledge and education and consent and had specific opinions in the main axis of beliefs of religion and the truth about their own past religion; and from the time of entrance to Islam the environmental conditions did not give them time and opportunity to pay attention to circumstances besides external decrees of Islamic community and politics. During this period, gradually, each group with admonition and thought in the science and learning of their past religion, planned out to search around the truth and Islamic learning which were professing to that at present time; and balance and compare it with their past faith and consents. This search would take place from two groups and through two views. A group whose views were in refuting the principles and Islamic truth and presenting fault with Islamic religion through scientific and logical reasoning (in their own illusion). And the other group was with the views of proving the rightfulness of the religion of Islam and its excellence with the commensuration of time over previous religions. In brief, enthusiasm and excitement were apparent in the people for analyzing science and learning and comprehending truth of religion. Secondly, the time of His Holiness coincided with the instability of the pillars of the corruptive government of the Bani Umayyad and general uprising and outburst against their rule, that in every corner of the cities and towns, the fire of revolution was blazing and the agents of Umayyad were confronting with those who revolted everywhere. Therefore, the rulers did not have opportunity to pay attention to the scientific movement and or to prevent the people from forming of such kind of gatherings. Thirdly, for reasons of the long time lifespan of the Sacred Legislator of Islam, for realization and understanding the truth of the Koran and its practice, they needed to debate and investigate in the meaning of the words and interpretation of its contents; moreover, for following the tradition of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) for reasons that the narrators during the time of the Master of Traditions were not alive - who for various reasons were plenty at that time - they needed to criticize and expurgate narrators till they would be assured of the authenticity of the narrations and tradition at all. Regarding this point, the large theological schools and the important teaching sessions were convened in each major cities like Medina and Mecca and Kufa and Basra etc. and the well informed teachers engaged in debate and investigation about religious sciences and episteme in them; and naturally as a result in continuation of examination of various religious discussions and difference in taste and enthusiasm of religious teachers, different sects were established in the axis of Islamic religion, and various conflicting consents would appear; as thus happened as mentioned.
It was in such an environment and era that His Holiness Jafar bin Mohammad (AS) took the time to guide the Muslims and regarded it an opportunity to propagate the truth of religion. He established a center of religious teachings; and according to some traditions, over four thousand students and learners would be present there, and among them there were the pupils who were scholars and jurists of the Sunnite sect, such as No’man bin Sabit Makki (Abi Hanifa) who for two years was student of His Holiness. Another person was Malik bin Anas who used to benefit in the presence of His Holiness for a long time. Narrators of narrations from His Holiness are so many that to mention them all is not possible here; therefore names of a few notables will be mentioned.
Sunnites’ narrators who narrated from His Holiness:
1) Abu Hanifah No’man bin Sabit
2) Malik bin Anas
3) Sofiyan Soori
4) Sofiyan bin Oyaynah
5) Yahya Ansari
6) Ibn Jarih
8) Mohammad bin Is’haq
9) She’abat bin Jah
10) Abu Ayyub Sajestani
And from the Shiite narrators:
1) Aban bin Taqlab
2) Aban bin Othman
3) Is’haq Sayrafi
4) Ismail Sayrafi
5) Yazid Jaali
6) Bekir bin A’ayon
7) Abu Hamzeh Somali
8) Jaber bin Yazid Jo’fi
9) Jamil bin Darraj
10) Omran bin A’ayon
11) Momen Taq
12) Husham bin Hakam
13) Husham bin Salim
And among the other narrators, these six persons are considered to be jurists and trustworthy narrators and confidants of His Holiness:
1) Jamil bin Darraj
2) Abdullah bin Moskan
3) Abdullah bin Bakir
4) Hamad bin Isa
5) Aban bin Othman
6) Hamad bin Othman
Special companions of His Holiness:
1) Husham bin Hakam
2) Husham bin Salim
3) Mohammad bin Ali No’man titled with Momen Taq (who the enemies used to call him as Devil Taq)
4) Moalla bin Qays
5) Es’haq bin Ammar Sayrafi
6) Muawiyah bin Ammar
7) Yunis bin Yaqoub
8) Fazl bin Omar Jafar
And among other companions of His Holiness, these few persons were said to be the first most jurists (Afqah-ol-Avalin)
1) Zarara bin A’ayon
2) Maruf bin Kharboz Makki
3) Abu Basir Islami
4) Fazl Sayyar
5) Mohammad bin Muslim Taefi
6) Yazid bin Moaviyeh Eg’li
His Holiness taught genuine divine jurisprudence which was practiced as “Jafari Jurisprudence” and was the essence of religion tenants and rightful views of the Shiite, by means of teaching students and propagated it through narrators in the midst of people and made it customary among his followers and Shiites. He also proved his views and consent to the opponents and enemies of sect and religion by means of discussions and debate, even with sound reasoning. In scientific and religious debates and discussions whoever he would be faced with, he would convince and overcome them, that the debates of His Holiness with different persons and sects are recorded in the books of biographies and the opportunity to mention them in this paper is not possible.
Besides the science of the interpretation of the Koran and science of religious jurisprudence His Holiness also was perfect. in the external sciences such as astronomy and chemistry and medicine and arithmomancy (if it can be considered as a science) Although, the genuine arithmomancy is justification of “the universal arithmomancy is with us” is other than this terminological and external arithmomancy and the intended meaning of that is, the breasts of those honorable righteous who are manifestations of the safeguarded tablet (Looh-e-mahfooz) but in external arithmomancy was also perfect as it has been written.
Adventurous history and the events of the time of His Holiness
His Holiness sat on the throne of Imamate of the people in the year 114 Hijri (733 AD) and was engaged in propagation and publication of the true religion of Jafari in Medina till the approach of the year 121 Hijri (739 AD) and in that year Zaid bin Ali bin al Hussain attempted to revolt against Husham bin Abdul Malek in Kufa and some of the Shiites gathered round him and swore allegiance to him. During the revolt a group who had sworn allegiance asked his opinion about Abu Bakr and Omar. Zaid said: I say nothing except blessings and benevolence about them. That group for reason of this answer or on the pretext of that broke their allegiance and dispersed and except a group of few, no other remained with him. When Zaid saw as such, said: O people! Have you abandoned me? That in this manner, as some say, from this time the name of Rafezi was attributed on them and gradually was generalized over all Shiites.
Anyway, His Excellency Zaid with the same few number of people revolted on the night of the 1st of Safar 121 Hijri (739 AD) and confronted with Husham’s agents in Kufa and fought and during the end of the next day an arrow struck his forehead in the battlefield and he fell from the horse. His companions took him out of the battlefield and secretly engaged in his treatment but the treatment did not work and he died on the same night. His body was buried under the ditch of water in the night and the ditch was returned back to its prior state. But the agents of Kufa found the place of the burial and brought his blessed body out of the grave, and separated his honorable head from his body and sent to Husham and his sacred body was hung. It is said that his body remained crucified for four years and his supporters -named by Zaydis- were hung. Yahya bin Zaid, son of His Excellency escaped and hid in Balkh and since Husham was destined to Abode of loss, Walid bin Yazid sat on the throne and wrote to Nasr bin Sayyar to release Yahya as at this time he was his prisoner. Nasr freed him and expelled him from Khorasan. Yahya went towards Jorgan and there he was killed on the dictate of Nasr and by the hands of Amr bin Zararah. In the year 124 Hijri (742 AD) Mohammad bin Ali bin Abdullah bin Abbas the father of Saffah and Ibrahim Imam died.
Basically, from the time the fortunate star of government of the Bani Marvan started to decline, the tormented and persecuted Muslims from the Marvanian tyrants sought freedom and started to revenge from them in all places and their hearts full of blood come to a boil and decided to sever the roots of those impious and to punish those tyrants. In Hejaz and Iraq which was the first centers of Islam, Bani Hashem who considered themselves as possessors of the seized rights, that is Islamic Caliphate –started to gather their friends and helpers and secretly sent their invitation to cities and towns and made the people aware of their intentions. Muslims from non Arab cities and societies who were not from Arab race and narrow mindedness of Bani Marvan would call them servants and would deprive them from progress in life and were an obstacle in their progress and elevation in the governmental positions were looking for a leader and rector so that under his banner would change situations and take revenge from the Bani Omayyad. This was that each of the two factions of leaders and followers had come sincerely for co-operation and in the beginning of the movement there was no talk about invitation to a specific individual or a specified person rather invitation was for the fall of Bani Omayyad and the selection of a mutually agreed person from the Bani Hashem or from the house of the Prophet. But, the overall general deficiency which was the cause of weakness of the Bani Hashem and martyrdom of most of them after the revolt and the delay which resulted in the end work of the Bani Marvan was lack of sincere harmony and unity on a specified person and particular individual. Because, those who started the movement were from several factions which all of them were united and with one cause for the fall of the enemy. But, for the next dominance and sovereignty according to the implicit meaning of the expression: “Government is castrated” no faction would give priority to another faction and each group wanted sovereignty and ruling for themselves. In fact, each fraction would work for themselves. Although, a few years before the start of action and beginning of the thought of movement, Some from Bani Hashem gathered in Abwa which is a locality in the west of Medina; and there were also a group from Bani Abbas and among them there were Abdullah Saffah and his brother Abu Jafar Mansour Dawaneghi who had worn a long yellow garment; and discussed about the movement and all of them consented to the preference of Abdullah al Hassan bin Hassan al Masni and all of them swore allegiance to him and Mansour Dawaeghi also was among those who swore allegiance. But this consensus and this allegiance did not reach anywhere and did not yield, and because His Holiness Sadiq (AS) was not present in the gathering, Abdullah Mahz requested His Holiness to come to the gathering, His Holiness considering Abdullah’s age agreed to be present in the gathering, but because the future was bright in his blessed views, in addition the master of true allegiance was His Holiness himself and could not swear allegiance with another. From this visage he did not swear allegiance to Mohammad. Those present also became hesitant in their own agreement and requested to swear allegiance to His Holiness. He said: this work is feasible neither for Mohammad nor for me; rather it is the property of the owner of the long yellow garment.
However those claimants who considered themselves having the right to the caliphate were some factions: From Alavians: first, Zaid bin Ali bin Al Hussain and his son Yahya, that their revolt we explained before and his followers that are known by the name of “Zaydis”. Second, Abu Hashem Abdullah bin Mohammad al Hanafia whose followers believed in the transference of the imamate after the “Master of the Martyrs” to Mohammad and after him to his son Hashem who were well known as “Kisaniyah” and Abu Hashem who was poisoned on his return from Damascus on the orders of Suleiman bin Abdul Malik and during his death was resident in Hamima and publicity center of Mohammad bin Ali bin Abdullah bin Abbas and since he had no child, appointed Mohammad bin Ali as his vicegerent and introduced his followers and adherents and transferred his right to invitation to him and practically Kisaniyah and Abbasid became one faction. Third, Mohammad bin Abdullah bin al Hassan who was entitled “Nafse Zakiya” or Sarih-e-Quraysh, who was the grandson of Ali (AS) (the original holder of caliphate) and he proclaimed the reason that his and his father’s name was the same as the Prophet, introduced himself as the true possessors of caliphate and he used this similarity as a proof to introduce himself as rightful and assumed himself to be the promised Mahdi. Especially as it was cited before, he was selected and with him allegiance was sworn in the gathering of Bani Hashem in Abwa. Fourth, Mohammad bin Ali bin Abbas bin Abdullah whose claim was unworthy, than the others, because the Bani Abbas would emphasize only of being the Prophet’s cousins on the genuineness of their claim and surprisingly, that divine will was determined for them that those who were the most unworthy and their speech were most foolish would take the ball from the field.
Nevertheless, the situation of the Islamic environment in the era of His Holiness Sadiq (AS) was as such and His Holiness without interfering in these instances propagated divine decrees and pillars of the religion of truth which the Jafari school of thought was famed by his name; till in Rabi-u-Thani in the year 125 Hijri (743 AD) Husham bin Abdul Malik left this world and Walid bin Yazid bin Abdul Malik sat on the throne in his place. Walid was manifestation of immorality and vice and was image of impiety and meanness. His behavior was so repulsive that on the directions of Yazid bin Walid bin Abdullah the people were compelled to revolt against him in Jamadi-u-Thani 126 Hijri (744 AD) rushed to his house and killed him and sixty of his companions. The duration of his kingship was for one year and three months, after him the inhabitants of Damascus swore allegiance to Yazid bin Walid and made him sit on the throne of sultanate. They called Yazid by the name of “Imperfect Yazid” because he diminished and deducted the salary of the troops. Yazid also left his sultanate after six months and hurried (died) towards his original domicile and according to his will his brother Ibrahim bin Walid sat in his place, and his sultanate did not last long; because after a few months meaning in the middle of 127 Hijri (745 AD) Marvan bin Mohammad famed as Marvan Hamar, the last caliph of Omayyad who during the massacre of Walid was the caliph of Armenia and was displeased with the massacre of Walid, before the death of Yazid revolted and occupied Algeria. And after the death of Yazid with a group who were from Armenia and Algeria who had gathered around him, moved towards Damascus and after war with Ibrahim bin Walid suppressed him and occupied Damascus the center of caliphate and dispersed his opponents and took allegiance from the people and sat on the throne.
However, Bani Abbas for some time had given resident to Mohammad bin Ali bin Abdullah bin Abbas in their farm called Hamima near Medina and used to send his followers around till Abu Hashem bin Mohammad Hanafia also turned his invitation over to him and introduced his followers to him. From this time, Mohammad bin Ali got hopeful into the results of this task and became more serious in work and increased his followers and assigned twelve representatives that among them were Suleiman bin Kathir and Qahtaba bin Shabib who engaged in invitations in Khorasan and Iraq and other cities till the year 124 Higri (742 AD) approached and Mohammad bin Ali died and left three sons: first was Ibrahim titled Imam, second Abul Abbas, third Abdullah Mansour. After his death the affairs for invitations was transferred to his elder son Ibrahim and he corresponded with the followers more seriously and persuaded them to invitation and in the year 126 Hijri (744 AD) sent Bakir bin Mahan to Khorasan and he secretly obtained allegiance for Ibrahim from many people and gathered abundant wealth and property from those who swore allegiance and sent it to him.
During this time Nasr Sayyar was ruling Khorasan on behalf of the Marvanians; when the affluence condition of Imam was prosperous, Abu Muslim Marvazi who was born in Isfahan and grown and brought up in Kufa and since long time back was connected and related to Ibrahim Imam. As his real name which was Ibrahim and his family name was Abu Is’haq, was changed to Is’haq and Abu Muslim according to Ibrahim’s own wish. In short, he who was a shrewd, bold and ruthless man also sent him to Khorasan for co-operation with other followers. And Abu Salama dispatched Khallal for invitation to Iraq and till the year 129 Hijri (747 AD) his followers and representatives were inviting secretly and without distinguishable priority to each other and for the satisfaction of Bani Hashem. And in this year Ibrahim sent a long black flag with a letter for Abu Muslim to Marv and put his followers and representatives under the command and obedience of Abu Muslim and commanded Abu Muslim to revolt and make the invitations obvious and take allegiance from the people in his name. And wrote to him to be fearless in killing and to kill those not congruent and on mere suspicion and slander for whoever is not with us is against us.
Abu Muslim made the people aware of the task of Ibrahim through the representatives and followers and made them ready for revolt which was determined for the end of Ramadan. That time on the 25th of Ramadan Abu Muslim with companions convened in the house of Suleiman bin Kathir and attired in black clothes which was assigned as their slogan and set ablaze excessive fire as a sign to revolt, and the followers gathered in Kathir’s house and Abu Muslim went to the mosque with a group on the morning of Eid. Suleiman bin Kathir, aborted the name of Marvanians from the sermon. Then Abu Muslim started attacking and aggression around Marv, till after a few months Nasr Sayyar the governing agent of Marvanians who was relieved from the war with Khadi Kermani started to war against Abu Muslim and after combat for sometime Nasr was compelled to flee towards Toos; and Marv was dominated by Abu Muslim and sent Qahtaba Sheybani in pursuit of Nasr to Toos. He occupied Toos and went towards Gorgan, and wiped out the enemies in that city and also sent his son to occupy Rey. He himself attacked Isfahan and Nahavand and took possession of all.
Marvan Hamar who was in Harran at this time, recently became aware of Iran’s situation and aware of the advancement of Qahtaba and was thinking of the remedy, when at the same moment incidentally Marvan got the letter that Abu Muslim had sent to Ibrahim Imam about the situation. He immediately arrested Ibrahim together with others from the Bani Abbas of Hamima and imprisoned them in Harran and after a few days killed Ibrahim in prison. After the homicide of Ibrahim and according to his will his brother Abul Abbas Saffah who had escaped to Kufa with Abdullah Mansour and was concealed in Abu Salama’s house became the inviter. After killing Ibrahim Imam, Marvan sent Yazid ibn Basira to Kufa to ward off Qahtaba. From the other side, Qahtaba also departed towards Kufa but he had not yet reached Yazid ibn Basira, he gained supremacy over his fear and dread and returned back to Kufa. Qahtaba gathered together ships and passed from the waters of Euphrates, and came closer to Yazid. Yazid hastened in his escape and Qahtaba hastened after him; because it was night, Qahtaba’s troops had crossed half the length of the river, were engaged in battle. Qahtaba wanted to cross the river with his horse, when his horse tumbled in the water and he was drowned. In the morning when the battle began and Marvanians were defeated, Khorasanians became aware of Qahtaba’s absence, they choose Hassan bin Qahtaba as the commander of the army and with triumph entered Kufa and Yazid bin Basira fled to Wasit. Hassan bin Qahtaba handed over the letter to Abu Salama which Abu Muslim had written for Hafz bin Suleiman Hamadani known as Abu Salama Khallal and had called him Al-e- Mohammad minister, and handed the affairs of Iraq to him. Abu Salama read the letter in the mosque to the people, then engaged in nominating commanders and agents for the territories of Iraq; and because Abu Salama was informed about the killing of Ibrahim Imam in the prison of Marvan, and was inclined more sincerely to the Alavians, took the opportunity to be negligent in swearing allegiance to Abul Abbas who was hiding underground and did not know that Kufa was conquered by the Khorasanians; and he was heedless and used to delay work so that maybe he could place one of the Alavians to the throne of caliphate. He even wrote two letters, one to His Holiness Sadiq (AS) and one to Abdullah bin Hassan bin Ali and invited them to accept the caliphate and commanded the courier that he should hand the letter to His Holiness Sadiq (AS) first and if His Holiness replied then to tear the second letter and if His Holiness did not reply then to give the second letter to Abdullah.
His Holiness burnt Abu Salama’s letter in the presence of the courier and said this is the answer. Abdullah bin Hassan did not answer to the letter after consultations with His Holiness Sadiq (AS). But before the return of Abu Salama’s courier from Medina, the emirs of Abu Muslim who were suspicious of Abu Salama and were aware of the hiding place of Saffah, brought Safaah outside from his hiding and swore allegiance to him. This day was the 14th of Rabi ul Awal of the year 133 Hejri (751 AD). Then Abul Abbas Saffah went to the caliph’s palace with the Khorasanians and from there to the mosque and after reciting the sermon sat down, so that the people would swear allegiance to him. And another day went to Himam Aayon which was the division of the army of Abu Salama to assign governors and agents of the countries, and sent his uncle Obeidullah bin Ali bin Abdullah bin Abbas with Abu Oon to fight and ward off Marvan. They after fighting in a locality called Zab, defeated Marvan and forced him to flee. Marvan escaped from Zab to Mosel. Husham bin Amr the governor of Mosel did not let him enter the city and was compelled to escape towards Harran and from there to Damascus. Obeidullah bin Ali sent Abu Oon to pursue Marvan to Damascus. Abu Onn in Damascus also defeated Marvan and conquered Damascus and killed many of the Bani Umayyad. Marvan fled from Damascus towards Hafr and in travelling through with the intention of going to Africa sat in the ship with his slave and since passed the Nile River, laid down on the ground for relaxation and fell asleep. It happened that one of the commanders of the army of Abu Oon by the name of Amer bin Ismail who was pursuing Marvan, found Marvan asleep and cut his head off and took it to Saffah and the reign of Bani Marvan ended. And Saffah independently sat on the throne of caliphate. The slaying of Marvan was on the 4th of Dhu-al-hajjah 132 Hijri (750 AD) and his age was sixty nine and the duration of his sultanate was approximately for five years. And Marvan was named as Hamar, because Arab call the apex of every one hundred years Hamar and from the caliphate of Muawiyah till the time of Marvan about hundred years had passed.
Abul Abbas Saffah the first caliphate of Abbasid made Kufa the capital and appointed his uncle Obeidullah bin Ali who was the conqueror of Damascus as governor of Syria and Suleiman bin Ali bin Abdullah as governor of Basra and Dawood bin Ali as governor of Mecca and Medina and for other cities appointed officials and ordered them that in every place to revenge the Bani Omayyad and consider this a priority over all other work and to consider this work as their epigraph. And they did as such. As Obeidullah bin Ali killed seventy pre-eminent persons of the Bani Omayyad in one meeting in Syria and spread a wide napery cloth on their bodies which was still in turmoil of death and ate food and opened all the graves of Bani Omayyad except the grave of Amr bin Abdul Aziz, and took their bodies out and on the body of Husham bin Abdul Malik which was not decomposed whipped one hundred lashes and burned him afterwards. And Suleiman also in Basra whoever he found from the Bani Omayyad beheaded him. Likewise Dawood bin Ali in Mecca and Medina killed many of the Bani Omayyad and confiscated their possessions. In short, in all places they were severity in taking vengeance from the Bani Omayyad.
Saffah due to Abu Salama’s inclination towards the Alavians was suspicious of him but because of their large followers and as he had been endowed the title of minister of Al-e-Mohammad, was fearful from killing him, and used to tolerate his presence till he finally got tired of toleration and inquired from Abu Muslim through Mansour about killing Abu Salama indirectly, and as he did not feel any opposition from him, one night that Abu Salama who was going towards his house from Safaah’s house - on the orders of Saffah - some persons assaulted him and killed him and related his killing to the Khawarij (the revolted people). However, Mohammad bin Abdullah bin Hassan Sahib Nafs Zakiya, that allegiance from him was with Saffah and Mansour from the day of gathering of Abwa, came to Kufa to Saffah. Saffah treated him with upmost courtesy and kindness and by giving him ample gifts and donations satisfied him and returned him happy to Medina. Despite that neither Mohammad bin Abdullah who considered the caliphate to be his rightfully withdrew, neither Saffah was assured on his present silence. Furthermore, till Saffah was alive, their relation was friendly and on mutual agreement. Till Safaah left this world in Dhu-l-Hijjah in the year 136 Hijri (754 AD) after three years and some months of caliphate and thirty three years of age and Abdullah Mansour sat in his place. But Obeidullah bin Ali who was his cousin and was the governing agent of Damascus rose up in opposition to him, and proclaimed himself as the caliph. Mansour sent Abu Muslim to confront Obeidullah so that he can conquer and crush him and established the caliphate of Mansour. But along this fact, there was no sincerity between Mansour and Abu Muslim because Mansour was offended from the conceited manner of Abu Muslim during the time of Saffah. Furthermore, he was dreadful from his power and glory and Abu Muslim also felt the formal and snobbish manner of Mansour was cautious internally till the pessimism of both sides intensified and Abu Muslim set out to Khorasan without permission and saying farewell to Mansour. Mansour was distressed from this act, and handed over the authority of office of Damascus and Egypt to him through a letter and sent a letter to Abu Muslim that he should return back. Abu Muslim replied that he does not like the offices of Damascus and Egypt and as such continued his way to Khorasan. Mansour again sent Isa bin Musa after Abu Muslim that first if he could return back Abu Muslim with a pact and treaty and if Abu Muslim did not accept - on behalf of Mansour - to tell him in case of disobedience (of Abu Muslim) then, he swears that he (Mansour) is not from the descendants of Abbas bin Abdul Mutallib if, he (Mansour) himself would not attack Khorasan to kill him (Abu Muslim) or be killed.
In short Abu Muslim returned back after much hesitation. Mansour met and behaved with him in a friendly way for three days and on the fourth day sat alone and concealed four armed persons behind the curtains and summoned Abu Muslim. During entry to the room the guards took his (Abu Muslim’s) sword, and unexpected fear overcame Abu Muslim as he went into the presence of Mansour. Mansour after harsh talks shouted so that the four persons came out and killed Abu Muslim. Mansour after tranquility from killing Abu Muslim thought about finding Mohammad Nafs Zakiya bin Abdullah al Mahz. Because he had sworn allegiance upon Mansour and he had the impression that Mohammad and his father still intend to claim loyalty with allegiance to him and planned to arrest them. Mohammad and Ibrahim became aware of this and fled from Medina. Mansour arrested their father Abdullah al Mahz and a group of pre-eminent of the Bani al Hassan in Medina and brought them to Kufa shackled and imprisoned them and sent a group of spies in search of Mohammad and Ibrahim and Mohammad was compelled to depart and revolted in Medina in the year 145 Hijri (763 AD) and a large number of people swore allegiance with him and helped in his movement. Even Abu Hanifa and Malik, two of the leaders of the Sunni sect fortified his caliphate and issued a decree on the genuineness of his crusade. Mansour sent his brother’s son Isa to fight with Mohammad and after severe fighting, the friends of Mohammad dispersed and no more than three hundred persons did not stay with him and all fought bravely till they were martyred with him.
On the 11th of Ramadan in the year 125 Hijri (743 AD) after the martyrdom of Mohammad, his brother Ibrahim revolted in Basra, and who was defeated by Isa and was martyred. After finishing with the two persons, Mansour took a severe revenge from the people of Medina and Basra and killed a group of pre-eminent of these two cities and confiscated their properties and imprisoned Abu Hanifa and lashed Malik and kept the Bani al Hassan in prison who were imprisoned till they died. Moreover, with regards to His Holiness Sadiq (AS) who had no interference in movements and revolt in no way treated with injustice and cruelty and confiscated His Holiness’s properties, and with intriguing gossipers, would request His Holiness to Kufa off and on and would vex and torment verbally and again would let him go; till his innate meanness instigated him, when he ordered His Holiness to be poisoned. And His Holiness was martyred on the 25th of Shawwal 147 Hijri (765 AD).
His Holiness was martyred at the age of sixty five years and some. The duration of his Imamate was for thirty three years and some months. And because the era of His Holiness was during times of severity, His Holiness had two kinds of will and testament: One factual and secret will to special disciples and companions worthy of his confidence and stipulated the Imamate of His Holiness Musa al Kazim (AS) and introduced their Imam to them. One will was superficial and public in which five persons were named as his successors, first Abu Jafar Mansour, second Mohammad bin Suleiman the administrator of Medina, third Abdullah Aftah, fourth Hamid, fifth His Holiness Imam Musa (AS) and the wisdom behind this will and testament was apparent after the death of His Holiness that Mansour wrote to the administrator of Medina after the death of His Holiness to investigate whoever Jafar bin Mohammad appointed in his will and testament, to summon him and immediately cut his head off. After formal investigations the administrator of Medina wrote that His Holiness appointed five persons as his successors and named the five persons and Mansour became disabled to enforce his intent.
Marriage and children of His Holiness:
His Holiness’s formal wife was Fatimah daughter of Hussain bin al Hassan bin Ali well known as Hussain Asghar and from Her Excellency he had three children.
1) His Excellency Ismail bin Jafar
2) Abdullah Aftah
3) A girl by the name of Umma Farwah.
All other children of His Holiness were from bondswomen as mentioned below:
1) His Holiness Musa al Kazim (AS)
3) Mohammad Dibaj
who the other three cited above were from one mother and Abbas and Ali and Asma and Fatimah each were from a mother and the elder son of His Holiness was His Excellency Ismail who His Holiness had excessive affection towards him. According to disagreement in traditions about the year 133 (751 AD) or 135 Hijri (753 AD) meaning 15 or 20 years before the martyrdom of his gracious father he died and some of the Shiites on occasion of being elder to his brothers and His Holiness Sadiq (AS) excessive affection towards him assumed him as His Holiness’s successor and vicegerent. Therefore, after his death, for the removal of this doubt and supposition during the carrying of the body of His Excellency Ismail from the Mahriz where he died till Baghii graveyard His Holiness Sadiq (AS) said two time to those carrying the body to stop and to put the body on the ground and opened the face of His Excellency Ismail and said to those present that: O! See this is my son Ismail who has died and the narration has also been cited that His Holiness said: In none of the affairs of God, there is no “change in mind” as the “change in mind” about my son Ismail.
Nevertheless, some of the Shiite remained on the assumed idea about the rejectability of “change in mind” and they considered him to be the Imam’s successor and vicegerent after his honorable father and considered the Imamate especially to his son, who were and are well known as the Ismailiyah sect. Some other people also considered Abdullah Aftah as Imam after His Holiness Sadiq (AS) who was the second son of His Holiness in respect of his age and was full blood brother of His Excellency Ismail and from this point of view he had two proofs to be credited and followed him who were well known as the Aftahiyah. A small group also talked about Imamate of Mohammad Dibaj who became well known as Dibajiyah and the rightful Twelver-Shiite knew His Holiness Musa al Kazim (AS) to be the specified Imam and proof of God.
Notable disciples of His Holiness:
They have been mentioned in the text. In the book of Behar ul Anwar, volume 10 in the chapter on the disciples of His Holiness, it is said: His rubric was Mohammad bin Sanan.
Contemporary Rulers and Sultans during the time of His Holiness:
1) Husham bin Abdul Malik
2) Walid bin Yazid bin Abdul Malik
3) Yazid bin Walid bin Abdullah
4) Ibrahim bin Walid bin Abdul Malik
5) Marvan bin Mohammad famed as Hamar
6) Abul Abbas Saffah Abbasi
7) Abdullah Mansour Dawanighi Abbasi